Liriomyza cicerina

Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani, 1875)

Wing length: 1.3 - 1.6 mm. The body coloration is highly variable. Legs are normally brownish striated (marbled) but several specimens have yellowish legs. Frontorbital bristles three or four, the anterior one can be much shorter than the others.
Male genitalia
Hypandrium large and thin; basal part of aedeagal apodeme almost straight; ejaculatory apodeme of intermediate size, rather broad; surstyli long and narrow generally with 1 apical spine. Gonites as in 'normal' Liriomyza; subapical part of distiphallus with long, narrow and strongly sclerotized area, terminal tubules of distiphallus well visible (Figs).
Immature stages
Spencer, 1973: Larval posterior spiracles each with 7-9 pores, arranged in a semicircle, both spiracles widely separated; puparium pale brownish-yellow.

Leaf miner, pupation occurs in the soil. The number of generations seems to be variable depending on the availability of host plants and temperature (Pastucha, 1996: 2 generations; Lahmar and Zeouienne, 1990: at least 3 generations; Banita et al., 1992: 3-4 generations).
Lahmar and Zeouienne, 1990: First generation development in 25 days.
(Shevtchenko, 1937)

Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea), Ononis spp., Hymenocarpus circinnatus (L.) Savi.
Spencer, 1973 and 1990 suggested that the primary host plants are likely to be the European plant Ononis spp. because he assumed the center of origin of Liriomyza cicerina to be in Europe. Since chickpea was introduced from India he supposed a host switch to Cicer was established in Europe. However, recently cicerina was confirmed from India. It is unknown whether or not the species had been secondarily introduced from Europe.

Widespread in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions.
Records exist from Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia, Ukraine, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, ..
Only one reference (Naresh and Malik, 1989) confirmed the occurrence of Liriomyza cicerina in India. The pest status of the species in India appears to be low because only this single record could be found in the literature.

Chickpea, used for both, human consumption and as forage plant for livestock, is an important plant especially in the Mediterranean region and India (van Rheenen, 1991).
In those areas where chickpea is cultivated, Liriomyza cicerina must be considered as one of the most serious pests. The infestation of the plants is often severe and can strongly affect the vitality of the plants and reduce the amount and quality of the yield (e.g. Pastucha, 1996).
The previously prevailing attempts to control measures have been screening for resistance against leaf-miners. These efforts were partly successful (Singh et al., 1998; Weigand and Tahhan, 1990).