Liriomyza sativae

Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, 1938

Important characters for separating sativae from other polyphagous Liriomyza species are brilliantly shining black mesonotum (in this respect only Liriomyza brassicae is similar), the small entirely yellow third antennal segment and the small discal cell.

Wing length: 1.3 - 1.7 mm. Tibiae light brown, only slightly darker than femora. Outer vertical bristle on dark cuticle, surrounding of inner vertical bristle variable but in most cases dark as well.
Male genitalia
Ejaculatory apodeme of intermediate size; surstyli rather broad and short (Lir sativae genitalia.pct) with 1 apical spine and several apical hairs; terminal part of distiphallus conspicuously pale even in fresh specimens, both terminal tubules are well visible.
Immature stages
Larval posterior spiracles with three bulbs each.

The mine produced by the larva is irregular linear.
There are many subsequently following generations per season. The number of generations are apparently limited only by the availability of food (Spencer, 1973).
Some work on the life history of this species was carried out recently by He et al., 1999. Following these authors, the total duration of pre-imaginal development can vary from 12 to 55 days depending on the temperature. The average longevity of adults ranged from 17.3 to 6.5 days.

Liriomyza sativae has a wide host range including several important cultivated plants, however, the host range is not as large as that of the related species Liriomyza trifolii: Spencer, 1990 listed 9 host plant families.
The main crops attacked by the present species are (Spencer, 1973):
Cucurbitaceae: Cucumis melo L. (cantaloupe), C. sativus L. (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo L. (squash), C. moschata (butternut).
Euphorbiaceae: Ricinus communis (castor).
Fabaceae: Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (pigeon pea), Lupinus sp., Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), Melilotus alba Desr., Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean), Ph. vulgaris, Vigna luteola (= repens), Vigna unguiculata ssp. sinensis.
Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum L. (pepper), Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomato), Solanum melongena L. (egg-plant), Solanum tuberosum L. (potato).
Brassicaceae: Brassica spp.
Malvaceae: Gossypium (cotton).
Additionally the species also feeds on some ornamentals, e.g. Chrysanthemum.

Spencer, 1973 mentioned only North and South American localities and some Islands: "South America: Argentina, Peru, Venezuela; ?Central America; USA (California, Alabama, Texas, Florida, S. Carolina, Ohio, Hawaii); Guam; Tahiti". Later Costa Rica (Spencer, 1983) was added. Since than sativae was introduced to localities in Asia and Africa. In the new habitats the species is obviously thriving well and still increasing its range. Recent records of occurrence and partly severe damage came from China (several references, see literature part), Japan (Sasakawa in lit.), Russia (Zlobin in press) Turkmenia (Zlobin personal communication), Turkey (Civilek in press), West Africa: Nigeria (Deeming and Mann, 1999).

Because of the high populations Liriomyza sativae can achieve, the damage of the foliage can result in significant crop loss and even plant mortality. The problems with the species are currently of special severity in those areas, where it was recently introduced (see distribution part). However, sativae is apparently not as dangerous as the related Liriomyza trifolii (Parrella et al., 1981, Cruz and Cardona, 1998).